Linux offers many different file systems. A file system determines how files are read/accessed on your disk. The Linux default is EXT4.
Which is most cases leads to the best results in terms of compatibility and stability. But misses modern features like snapshot support & compression.
COW: Copy on write is a technique to greatly reduce disk space usage in trade off for performance
Journaling: A journaling file system is a file system that keeps track of changes not yet committed to the file system's so that in case of a power failure it gets back online faster and is less likely to suffer from data corruption.
Compression: Compression compresses files on your disk to make them take up less space
Encryption: Encryption encrypts your disk securing it with an extra safety measure
Snapshots: Are a way to roll back your system to an earlier state when something goes wrong. It's not a replacement for a proper backup solution.
Quota: Set limits on how much disk space users/projects or programs can use.
Find an overview of the different features each file system offers
EXT4 is the default Linux file system, It has high compatibility & stability due to being the most used options. (If you use Dropbox EXT4 is the only file system on Linux officially supported)
Btrfs is a modern copy on write (CoW) filesystem for Linux aimed at implementing advanced features while also focusing on fault tolerance, repair and easy administration.
Bcachefs is a next-generation CoW filesystem that aims to provide features from Btrfs and ZFS with a cleaner codebase, more stability, greater speed and a GPL-compatible license.
JFS is a stable, feature-rich file system that has not been publicized as much as some of the other Linux file systems. With optimizations, JFS is stable, CPU efficient and fast. In particular, VMWare sessions stand to benefit enormously from a properly optimized and defragmented, underlying JFS file system.
XFS is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics, Inc. XFS is particularly proficient at parallel IO due to its allocation group based design. This enables extreme scalability of IO threads, filesystem bandwidth, file and filesystem size when spanning multiple storage devices.
OpenZFS is an open-source storage platform. It includes the functionality of both traditional file systems and volume managers.
F2FS (Flash-Friendly File System) is a flash file system initially developed by Samsung Electronics for the Linux kernel.
ReiserFS is a general-purpose, journaling file system without quota support